Our History

Darrell Schapmire

Darrell Schapmire is the original developer of the XRTS FCE testing protocols. Mr. Schapmire planned to do a pilot study involving the use of simultaneous bilateral testing of the hands. Because the results of the first group of subjects was so promising, he decided to expand the study and eventually gathered data which resulted in their first study which was published in 2002 in the Journal of Hand Therapy. Since that time, Schapmire has organized a wide ranging research initiative which resulted in the publication of seven more articles, five of which were primary research.

The XRTS FCE system was developed by Mr. Schapmire’s response to what he believed were substantial weaknesses in standard testing methods, very frequently producing unclear, even contradictory, information pertaining to behavior during an evaluation. In 1995, the concept of simultaneously testing strength in both hands first occurred to the developer while actually conducting a standard hand strength assessment on an individual suspected of withholding effort. When the patient was asked to squeeze with one hand and pinch with the other, using the testing gauges, the responses were dramatically higher than when the patient was performing the standard one-handed squeezes and pinches. The concept of using leverage to disguise a workload, making its real weight difficult to estimate, began as an idea that came to Mr. Schapmire while driving to work. He obtained a pro se utility patent in 2000 for the XRTS Lever Arm. Both concepts were field tested and highly refined prior to being put into their present forms.

In 2012, Bardavon Health Innovations® purchased the technology from Mr. Schapmire with the intent of using it to live out the mission of the company. The ultimate goal of the XRTS FCE system is to raise the bar for validity of effort testing in order to protect the interests of claimant and employer alike.